I describe statistical determinants of Labor Force Participation (LFP) of adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and investigate what might explain their lower LFP than those with the other developmental, neuro-cognitive and physical disabilities. The estimated Average Marginal Effect of completing high school on probability of LFP from Probit models is the highest for those with ASD among all the other comparison groups of those living with the other disabilities. The estimated effects are higher for younger adults than that for the older ones. These findings suggests that improving education attainments of younger individuals with ASD could comparatively be more effective in improving their LFP. Blinder-Oaxaca decompositions show that considerable portion of the lower LFP of adults with ASD than the other comparison groups is not explained by their observable characteristics, suggesting that they might be subject to stigma and discrimination more often than the others with disabilities.
Work in Progress:
Utilization with High Out-of-Pocket Costs: Evidence from In-Vitro-Fertilization Treatment,with Lucie Schmidt and Lindsay Tedds.
Does insurance coverage of medical treatments with high out-of-pocket costs affects patients' utilization. We exploit a policy intervention that mandates coverage for In-Vitro- Fertilization (IVF) -an expensive infertility treatment with low success rates in one cycle of treatment- in private health insurance in the US. Mandated coverage varies from one cycle of treatment in some states to unlimited cycles in some others. Patients' might increase their chances of conceiving an infant by more aggressive treatments, resulting in risky and costly multiple births. We provide the first estimate of the effects on adverse outcome of aggressive treatments from number of IVF cycles covered in mandated health insurances. We use a Generalized Synthetic Control framework to estimate causal effects. Our estimated effects varies from 0.31 percentage points decrease in share of multiple births in states with only one covered cycle to more than 35 percentage points increase in states with unlimited coverage. Our estimates of effects of mandated IVF coverage on adoption -the main alternative for IVF patients with low chances of success -furthermore shows that adoption rates in states with more covered cycles is lower. These findings suggests that high out-of-pocket costs has strong behavioural responses from patients. In states with more coverage, more patients with low chance of success -who would prefer aggressive treatments- use the treatment. These patients otherwise would have adopted a child. Our findings have important implications for designing policy interventions to increase accessibility of expensive and technologically advance medical treatments while simultaneously decreasing utilization costs.
Describing Heterogeneity of Unmet needs Among Adults with a Developmental Disability: An Examination of the 2012 Canadian Survey on Disability, with Jennifer Zwicker and Herb Emery, Research in Developmental Disabilities, Volume 65, June 2017.